Threats to Indonesian Language? Gaul and Alay Language as Products of Urban Culture in Jakarta


Guest Teacher of Indonesian Language and Culture at Sofia University “St. Kliment Ohridski”


Bahasa Indonesia (Indonesian) is used in the Republic of Indonesia as national language. Indonesian is derived from Malay, the lingua franca in Indonesian archipelago comprising over 700 living languages. Nowadays, the use of Indonesian language in urban community of Jakarta has had lots of modification in its form and use. The use of Gaul language whose characteristic is mainly with messing the sounds and Alay language mainly with messing the forms have been seen by many as threats to the existence of Indonesian language, many have seen them as variations of language use. This paper attempts to examine the characteristics of Gaul and Alay language and whether they are threats to Indonesian.


Indonesian Language, Lingua Franca, Gaul, Alay, language use, variation, threats.

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Performativity in Bulgarian and Balinese Rites. Cross-cultural Aspects

Assoc. Prof. Joanna Spassova-Dikova, PhD.

Insitute of Art Studies, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences


The paper is part of a larger interdisciplinary comparative study of the theatrical masks in the Eastern and Western cultures. The focus of the attention is on some of the Bulgarian rites like lazarouvane, mummers games (Jamal), nestinarstvo and their “analogues” in Balinese culture as legong, Barong, topeng, kecak fire dance. An attempt for providing a cross-cultural analysis of these theatrical ritual forms typical of the traditional cultures of Bulgaria and Bali is made, not so much in the context of their specific folklore, ethnographic or religious aspects (paganism, Christianity, Hinduism), but more in terms of performativity, safeguarding of the intangible cultural heritage and intercultural communication.


Performativity, cross-cultural, intercultural communication, Bulgarian and Balinese Rites: Initiation rites, rites for the victory of good over evil and rites for connecting with the transcendental powers

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Facebook Communication Between South-East Asian People: To Speak With Friends from The Same Country and With Those From Different Countries

Titik  Wahyuningsih, S.S., M.Hum

Lecturer, English Department, Faculty of Letters, University of Muhammadiyah Purwokerto,  Indonesia Guest Lecturer, Indonesian Language and Culture, Faculty of Classical and Modern Philology, Sofia University, St. Kliment Ohridski, Bulgaria


Facebook is one of the most popular social media by which people communicate. It is not only used between people from the same countries to communicate with, but also with people who come from different countries.  In south-east Asia, people also communicate with their friends by using facebook. I also have some south-east Asian facebook friends. To name a few: Indonesia, Thailand, Phillipine, Malaysia.

This paper observes the use of languages between native speakers of Indonesia, Thailand, Phillipines, and Malaysia with their friends from the same countries and ones with friends from different south-east Asian countries.  It focuses on the phenomena of code switching and code mixing.  Qualitative research by using sociolinguistics theory is applied here.

The observation shows that south-east Asian people tend to use their own languages (and even their own alphabet for Thai) to interract with friends from the same country but they tend to use English with those from different cuntries.  However, most of them try show their respect to friends from different countries by using their friends’ languages.

Keywords:  facebook, communication, south-east Asian, code switching, code mixing

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Индонезия – съвременно социално-икономическо развитие

Професор дфн., д-р ист. Нако Райнов Стефанов, СУ «Св. КлиментОхридски», ФКНФ, ЦИЕК, КЕКИА

Indonesia – contemporary socio-economic development

Professor Nako Raynov Stefanov, D.Sc. (in Philosophy), Ph.D. (in History), Sofia University „St. Kliment Ohridski“, FKNF, CELC, KLCEА


The main objective of the given material is the analysis of modern socio-economic development of Indonesia. Based on this analysis are synthesized the key findings concerning the characteristics of the socio-economic system of the country. In view of the findings are predicted the potential socio-economic prospects in a short and medium terms. The main sections of the report are:

1. Analysis of key structures and trends of social and economic life of Indonesia;

2. Characteristics of the key directions of socio-economic system of Indonesia;

3. Possible alternatives concerning the challenges and prospects of socio-economic dynamics of Indonesia.


Indonesia,contemporarysocio-economic development, characteristics of the socio-economic system, potential socio-economic prospects

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